BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE PDF DOWNLOAD

In the beginning, there was light, and matter, and antimatter, in an expanding and cooling Universe. But something else happened before. Scientists believe that our universe began with one enormous explosion of energy and light, which we now call the Big Bang. This was the singular start to. The most popular theory of our universe's origin centers on a cosmic cataclysm unmatched in all of history—the big bang. This theory was born of the.


BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE PDF DOWNLOAD

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BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE PDF DOWNLOAD


This argument about whether or not the universe had a beginning, persisted into the 19th and 20th centuries.

It was conducted mainly on the basis of theology and philosophy, with little consideration of observational evidence. This may have been reasonable, given the notoriously unreliable character of cosmological observations, until fairly recently.

BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE PDF DOWNLOAD

The cosmologist, Sir Arthur Eddington, once said, 'Don't worry if your theory doesn't agree with the observations, because they are probably wrong. In fact, the theory that the universe has existed forever is in serious difficulty with the Second Law of Thermodynamics.

The Second Law, states that beginning of the universe always increases with time.

Like the argument about human progress, it indicates that there must have been a beginning. Otherwise, the universe would be in a state of complete disorder by now, and everything would be at the same temperature. In an infinite and everlasting universe, every line of sight would end on the surface of a beginning of the universe.

Did God Create the Universe?

This would mean that the night sky would have been as bright as the surface of the Sun. The only way of avoiding this problem would be if, for some reason, the stars did not shine before a certain time.

In a universe that was essentially static, there would not have been any dynamical reason, why the stars should have suddenly turned on, beginning of the universe some time. Any such "lighting up time" would have to be imposed by an intervention from outside the universe.

The situation was different, however, when it was realised that the beginning of the universe is not static, but expanding. Galaxies are moving steadily apart from each other.

This means that they were closer together in the past.

The Beginning of Time - How the Universe, Time, Space Started

One can plot the separation of two galaxies, as a function of time. If there were no acceleration due to gravity, the graph would be a straight line. It would go down to zero separation, about twenty billion years ago.

One would expect gravity, to beginning of the universe the galaxies to accelerate towards each other. This will mean that the graph of the separation of two galaxies will bend downwards, below the straight line.

Big Bang - Wikipedia

So the time of zero separation, would have been less than twenty billion years ago. At this time, the Big Bang, all the matter in the universe, would have been on top of itself. The density would have been infinite.

It would have beginning of the universe what is called, a singularity. At a singularity, all the laws of physics would have broken down. This means that the state of the beginning of the universe, after the Big Bang, will not depend on anything that may have happened before, because the deterministic laws that govern the universe will break down in the Big Bang.